Carlos Coimbra

Associate Director, Center for Energy Research; Principle Investigator, Coimbra Energy Group; Co-Director of the Center for Renewable Research Integration; Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Professor Coimbra explores the intersection between experimental, theoretical and fieldwork methods to analyze and develop new technologies to  harvest solar power in its diverse forms (direct, wind, hydropotential, etc). He  uses a network  of solar observatories  distributed throughout several University of California campuses to harvest valuable ground data to be used in forecasting simulations with time horizons varying from seconds to multiple  days. He  is particularly interested in the development  of highly nonlinear, evolutionary stochastic models for chaotic processes, and linking this knowledge to the development and active control of receiver-to-storage solar and wind systems.

Professor Coimbra received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Irvine, in 1998. He was an associate professor and founding Chairman of the Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics graduate program at UC Merced from 2006 to 2011. He joined the Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego in July 2011, and is now the Co-Director of the UCSD Center for Excellence in Renewable Resource Integration (CERRI) and the Faculty Director of the IDEA Student Center.

Journal Publications

  1. E.A. Lim, M.H. Kobayashi and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “Fractional Dynamics of Tethered Particles in Oscillatory Stokes Flows,” submitted.
  2. Y. Chu, L. Nonnenmacher, R.H. Inman, Z. Liao, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “A Smart Image-Based Cloud Detection System for Intra-Hour Solar Irradiance Forecasts,” submitted.
  3. A. Kaur, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “Ensemble Re-Forecasting Methods for Enhanced Power Load Prediction,” Energy Conversion and Management (in press)
  4. S. Quesada-Ruiz, Y. Chu, J. Tovar-Pescador, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “Cloud-Tracking Methodology for Intra-Hour DNI Forecasting,” Solar Energy (in press).
  5. A. Zagouras, R.H. Inman and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “On the Determination of Coherent Solar Microclimates for Utility Planning and Operations,” Solar Energy (102), pp. 173-188.
  6. L. Nonnenmacher, A. Kaur and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “Variability Analysis for Direct Normal Irradiance with SUNY Model and Ground Measurements,” Solar Energy (99) pp. 246-258.
  7. M.P. Porto et al. (2014) “Genetic Optimization of Heat Transfer Correlations for Evaporator Tube Flows”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 70, pp. 330-339.
  8. M.P. Porto et al. (2014) “Boiling Heat Transfer on a Simulated Nuclear Fuel Rod with Annular Fins,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (68) pp. 29-34.
  9. Y. Chu, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Hybrid Intra-Hour DNI Forecasts with Sky Image Processing Enhanced by Stochastic Learning”, Solar Energy (98) pp. 592-603.
  10. A. Kaur, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Impact of Onsite Solar Generation on System Load Demand Forecast”, Energy Conversion and Management (75) pp. 701-709.
  11. R.H. Inman, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Solar Forecasting Methods for Renewable Energy Integration”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (39) pp. 535-576.
  12. O. Ozgen, S. Sumengen, M. Kallmann, C.F.M. Coimbra and S. Balcisoy (2013) “Simulating Colliding Flows in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with Fractional Derivatives,” Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds (24) N.5, pp. 511-523.
  13. R. Marquez, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Hybrid Solar Forecasting Method Uses Satellite Imaging and Ground Telemetry as Inputs to ANNs,” Solar Energy (92) pp. 172-188.
  14. R. Marquez and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Intra-Hour DNI Forecasting Methodology Based on Cloud Tracking Image Analysis”, Solar Energy (91), pp. 327-336.
  15. R. Marquez, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Proposed Metric for Evaluating Solar Forecasting Models” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (135), pp. 0110161-0110169.
  16. R. Marquez, V. Gueorguiev, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Forecasting of Global Horizontal Irradiance Using Sky Cover Indices, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (135), pp. 0110171-0110175.
  17. H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2012) “Assessment of Forecasting Techniques for Solar Power Output with No Exogenous Inputs”, Solar Energy (86), pp. 2017-2028.
  18. R. Marquez, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2011) “Forecasting of Global and Direct Solar Irradiance Using Stochastic Learning Methods, Ground Experiments and the NWS Database”- Solar Energy (85), pp. 746-756.
  19. L.E.S. Ramirez and C.F.M. Coimbra (2011) “On the Variable Order Dynamics of the Nonlinear Wake Caused by a Sedimenting Particle,” Physica D (240) 13, pp. 1111-1118.
  20. S. Pineda, G. Diaz, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2011) “Approximation of transient 1-D conduction in a finite domain using parametric fractional derivatives” – ASME Journal of Heat Transfer N. 133 (7) pp. 071301.
  21. O. Ozgen, M. Kallmann, L.E.S. Ramirez, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2010) “Underwater Cloth Simulation with Fractional Derivatives” ACM Transactions on Graphics (29) 3, Article Number: 23.
  22. L.E.S. Ramirez, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2010) “On the Selection and Meaning of Variable Order Operators for Dynamic Modeling”– International Journal of Differential Equations Vol. 2010, Article ID 846107.
  23. M.H. Kobayashi, H. T. C. Pedro, C.F.M. Coimbra, and A.K. da Silva (2009) “The Formal Evolutionary Development of Low Entropy Dendritic Thermal Systems” - Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, (23) (1), pp. 822-827.
  24. G. Diaz, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2009) “Nonlinear dynamics and control of a variable order oscillator with application to the van der Pol equation” – Nonlinear Dynamics, 56, pp. 145—157.
  25. H.T.C. Pedro, M.H. Kobayashi, J.M.C. Pereira, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2008) “Variable Order Modeling of Diffusive-Convective Effects on the Oscillatory Flow Past a Sphere” – Journal of Vibration and Control, (14) 9-10, pp. 1569-1672.
  26. H.T.C. Pedro, M.H. Kobayashi, C.F.M. Coimbra, and A.K. da Silva (2008) “On the Effectiveness of Complex Design through an Evolutionary Approach” – Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, (22) 1, pp. 115-118.
  27. L.E.S. Ramirez, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2007) “A Variable Order Constitutive Relation for Viscoelasticity”– Annalen der Physik (16) 7-8, pp. 543-552.
  28. A. K. da Silva, M. H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2006) “Optimal Theoretical Design of 2-D Microscale Viscous Pumps for Maximum Flow Rate and Minimum Power Consumption” – International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 28, pp. 526-536.
  29. A. K. da Silva, M. H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2006) “Optimal Design of Non-Newtonian, Micro-Scale Viscous Pumps for Biomedical Devices” – Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 96 (1), pp. 37-47.
  30. D.L. L’Esperance, J.D. Trolinger, C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (2006) “Particle Response to Low Reynolds Number Oscillation of a Fluid in Microgravity” – AIAA Journal (44) No. 5, pp. 1060-1064.
  31. J. S. Allen, M. H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2006) “History Effects on the Viscous Motion of Acoustically Forced Particles” – Applied Physics Letters (88) 214106.
  32. M.H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2005). “On the Stability of the Maxey-Riley Equation in Nonuniform Linear Flows” Physics of Fluids, 17, pp. 113301.
  33. D. L’Esperance, C.F.M. Coimbra, J.D. Trolinger, and R.H. Rangel (2005). “Experimental Verification of Fractional History Effects on the Viscous Dynamics of Small Spherical Particles” Experiments in Fluids (38) pp. 112-116.
  34. E. A. Lim, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M.H. Kobayashi (2005). “Dynamics of a Suspended Particle in Eccentrically Rotating Flows” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, (535), pp. 101-110.
  35. C. M. Soon, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. H. Kobayashi (2005). “The Variable Viscoelasticity Oscillator” Annalen der Physik, (14) N.6, pp. 378-389.
  36. J. L. Falter, M. J. Atkinson, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2005). “Effects of Surface Roughness and Oscillatory Flow on Dissolution of Plaster Forms: Evidence for Nutrient Mass Transfer to Coral Reef Communities” Limnology and Oceanography, 50 (1), pp. 246-254.
  37. J.D. Trolinger, D. L’Esperance, R.H. Rangel, C.F.M Coimbra, and W. Witherow (2004) “Design and Preparation of a Particle Dynamics Space Flight Experiment, SHIVA” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1027), pp. 500-516.
  38. C.F.M. Coimbra, D. L’Esperance, R.A. Lambert, J.D. Trolinger, and R.H. Rangel (2004). “An Experimental Study on Stationary History Effects in High Frequency Stokes Flows” Journal of Fluid Mechanics (504), pp. 353 - 363.
  39. C.F.M. Coimbra (2003). “Mechanics with Variable Order Differential Operators” Annalen der Physik (12), No. 11-12, pp. 692-703.
  40. L.E.S. Ramirez, E. A. Lim, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. H. Kobayashi (2003). “On the Dynamics of a Spherical Scaffold in Rotating Wall Bioreactors” Biotechnology and Bioengineering (84) 3, pp. 382-389.
  41. C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. H. Kobayashi (2002). “On the Viscous Motion of a Small Particle in a Rotating Cylinder” - Journal of Fluid Mechanics (469) pp. 257-286.
  42. C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (2001). “Spherical Particle Motion in Harmonic Stokes Flows” - AIAA Journal (39) 9, pp. 1673-1682.
  43. C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (2000). “Unsteady Heat Transfer in the Harmonic Heating of a Dilute Suspension of Small Particles” - International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (43) pp. 3305-3316.
  44. C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (1998). “General Solution of the Particle Momentum Equation in Unsteady Stokes Flows” - Journal of Fluid Mechanics (370) pp. 53-72.
  45. C.F.M. Coimbra, D.K. Edwards, and R.H. Rangel (1998). “Heat Transfer in a Homogeneous Suspension Including Radiation and History Effects” - AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer (12) 3, pp. 304-312.
  46. C.F.M. Coimbra, J.S. Shirolkar and M.Q. McQuay (1998). “Modeling Particle Dispersion in a Turbulent, Multiphase Mixing Layer” - Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics (73) pp. 79-97.
  47. J.S. Shirolkar, C.F.M. Coimbra and M.Q. McQuay (1996). “Fundamental Aspects of Modeling Turbulent Particle Dispersion in Dilute Flows” - Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (22) pp. 363-399.
  48. C.F.M. Coimbra, P.J. Coelho, M.Q. McQuay and M.G. Carvalho (1996). “The Comparison of Two Comprehensive Combustion Codes to Simulate Large-Scale, Oil-Fired Boilers” - Combustion Science and Technology (120) pp. 55-81.
  49. C.F.M. Coimbra and M. Queiroz (1995). “Evaluation of a Dimensionless Group Number to Determine Second-Einstein Temperatures in a Heat Capacity Model for All Coal Ranks” - Combustion and Flame (101) 3, pp. 209-220.
  50. C.F.M. Coimbra, J.L.T. Azevedo and M.G. Carvalho (1994). “3-D Numerical Model for Predicting NOx Emissions from an Industrial Pulverized Coal Combustor” - Fuel (73) pp. 1128-1134.
  51. J.L.T. Azevedo, M.G. Carvalho, P.J. Coelho, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. Nogueira, (1993). “Modeling of Combustion and NOx Emissions in Industrial Equipment”- Pure and Applied Chemistry (65) pp. 345-354.

Selected Journal Publications by Area

Variable Order Mechanics

  1. L. E. S. Ramirez and C. F. M. Coimbra (2011) “On the Variable Order Dynamics of the Nonlinear Wake Caused by a Sedimenting Particle,” Physica D(240) 13, pp. 1111-1118.
  2. L. E. S. Ramirez and C. F. M. Coimbra (2010) “On the Selection and Meaning of Variable Order Operators for Dynamic Modeling,” International Journal of Differential Equations, vol. 2010, Article ID 846107, 16 pages, doi:10.1155/2010/846107.
  3. G. Diaz, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2009) “Nonlinear dynamics and control of a variable order oscillator with application to the van der Pol equation” – Nonlinear Dynamics, 56, pp. 145—157.
  4. H.T.C. Pedro, M.H. Kobayashi, J.M.C. Pereira, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2008) “Variable Order Modeling of Diffusive-Convective Effects on the Oscillatory Flow Past a Sphere” – Journal of Vibration and Control, (14) 9-10, pp. 1569-1672.
  5. L.E.S. Ramirez and C.F.M. Coimbra (2007) “A Variable Order Constitutive Relation for Viscoelasticity” Annalen der Physik (16), No. 7-8, pp. 543-552.
  6. E. A. Lim, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M.H. Kobayashi (2005). “Dynamics of a Suspended Particle in Eccentrically Rotating Flows” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, (535), pp. 101-110.
  7. C. M. Soon, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. H. Kobayashi (2005). “The Variable Viscoelasticity Oscillator” Annalen der Physik, (14) N.6, pp. 378-389.
  8. C.F.M. Coimbra (2003). “Mechanics with Variable Order Differential Operators” Annalen der Physik (12), No. 11-12, pp. 692-703.

Viscous Flows

  1. E.A. Lim, M.H. Kobayashi and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “Fractional Dynamics of Tethered Particles in Oscillatory Stokes Flows,” submitted.
  2. L. E. S. Ramirez and C. F. M. Coimbra (2011) “On the Variable Order Dynamics of the Nonlinear Wake Caused by a Sedimenting Particle,” Physica D (240) 13, pp. 1111-1118.
  3. H.T.C. Pedro, M.H. Kobayashi, J.M.C. Pereira, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2008) “Variable Order Modeling of Diffusive-Convective Effects on the Oscillatory Flow Past a Sphere” – Journal of Vibration and Control, (14) 9-10, pp. 1569-1672.
  4. K. da Silva, M. H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2007) “Optimal Design of Non-Newtonian, Micro-Scale Viscous Pumps for Biomedical Devices” – Biotechnology and Bioengineering, (96) 1, pp. 37-47.
  5. K. da Silva, M. H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2007) “Optimal Theoretical Design of 2-D Microscale Viscous Pumps for Maximum Flow Rate and Minimum Power Consumption” – International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, (28) No. 3, pp. 526-536.
  6. E. A. Lim, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M.H. Kobayashi (2005). “Dynamics of a Suspended Particle in Eccentrically Rotating Flows” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, (535), pp. 101-110.
  7. D.L. L’Esperance, J.D. Trolinger, C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (2006) “Particle Response to Low Reynolds Number Oscillation of a Fluid in Microgravity” – AIAA Journal (44) No. 5, pp. 1060-1064.
  8. J. S. Allen, M. H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2006) “History Effects on the Viscous Motion of Acoustically Forced Particles” – Applied Physics Letters (88) 214106.
  9. M.H. Kobayashi, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2005). “On the Stability of the Maxey-Riley Equation in Nonuniform Linear Flows” Physics of Fluids, 17, pp. 113301.
  10. D. L’Esperance, C.F.M. Coimbra, J.D. Trolinger, and R.H. Rangel (2005). “Experimental Verification of Fractional History Effects on the Viscous Dynamics of Small Spherical Particles” Experiments in Fluids (38) pp. 112-116.
  11. E. A. Lim, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M.H. Kobayashi (2005). “Dynamics of a Suspended Particle in Eccentrically Rotating Flows” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, (535), pp. 101-110.
  12. C.F.M. Coimbra, D. L’Esperance, R.A. Lambert, J.D. Trolinger, and R.H. Rangel (2004). “An Experimental Study on Stationary History Effects in High Frequency Stokes Flows” Journal of Fluid Mechanics (504), pp. 353 - 363.
  13. L.E.S. Ramirez, E. A. Lim, C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. H. Kobayashi (2003). “On the Dynamics of a Spherical Scaffold in Rotating Wall Bioreactors” Biotechnology and Bioengineering (84) 3, pp. 382-389.
  14. C.F.M. Coimbra, and M. H. Kobayashi (2002). “On the Viscous Motion of a Small Particle in a Rotating Cylinder” - Journal of Fluid Mechanics (469) pp. 257-286.
  15. C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (2001). “Spherical Particle Motion in Harmonic Stokes Flows” - AIAA Journal (39) 9, pp. 1673-1682.
  16. C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (2000). “Unsteady Heat Transfer in the Harmonic Heating of a Dilute Suspension of Small Particles” - International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (43) pp. 3305-3316.
  17. C.F.M. Coimbra, and R.H. Rangel (1998). “General Solution of the Particle Momentum Equation in Unsteady Stokes Flows” - Journal of Fluid Mechanics (370) pp. 53-72.
  18. C.F.M. Coimbra, J.S. Shirolkar and M.Q. McQuay (1998). “Modeling Particle Dispersion in a Turbulent, Multiphase Mixing Layer” - Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics (73) pp. 79-97.
  19. J.S. Shirolkar, C.F.M. Coimbra and M.Q. McQuay (1996). “Fundamental Aspects of Modeling Turbulent Particle Dispersion in Dilute Flows” - Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (22) pp. 363-399.

Energy, Heat and Mass Transfer

  1. L. Nonnenmacher, A. Kaur and C.F.M. Coimbra (2014) “Variability Analysis for Direct Normal Irradiance with SUNY Model and Ground Measurements,” Solar Energy (99) pp. 246-258.
  2. M.P. Porto et al. (2014) “Genetic Optimization of Heat Transfer Correlations for Evaporator Tube Flows”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 70, pp. 330-339.
  3. M.P. Porto et al. (2014) “Boiling Heat Transfer on a Simulated Nuclear Fuel Rod with Annular Fins,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (68) pp. 29-34.
  4. Y. Chu, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Hybrid Intra-Hour DNI Forecasts with Sky Image Processing Enhanced by Stochastic Learning”, Solar Energy (98) pp. 592-603.
  5. R.H. Inman, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Solar Forecasting Methods for Renewable Energy Integration”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (39) pp. 535-576.
  6. A. Kaur, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Impact of Onsite Solar Generation on System Load Demand Forecast”, Energy Conversion and Management (75) pp. 701-709.
  7. R. Marquez, H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Hybrid Solar Forecasting Method Uses Satellite Imaging and Ground Telemetry as Inputs to ANNs,” Solar Energy (92) pp. 172-188.
  8. R. Marquez and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Intra-Hour DNI Forecasting Methodology Based on Cloud Tracking Image Analysis”, Solar Energy (91), pp. 327-336.
  9. R. Marquez, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Proposed Metric for Evaluating Solar Forecasting Models” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (135), pp. 0110161-0110169.
  10. H.T.C. Pedro and C.F.M. Coimbra (2012) “Assessment of Forecasting Techniques for Solar Power Output with No Exogenous Inputs”, Solar Energy (86), pp. 2017-2028.
  11. R. Marquez, V. Gueorguiev, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2013) “Forecasting of Global Horizontal Irradiance Using Sky Cover Indices, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (135), pp. 0110171-0110175.
  12. R. Marquez and C. F. M. Coimbra (2011) “Forecasting of Global and Direct Solar Irradiance Using Stochastic Learning Methods, Ground Experiments and the NWS Database,” Solar Energy 85 pp. 746-756.
  13. S. M. Pineda, G. Diaz and C. F. M. Coimbra (2011) “Approximation of Transient 1D Conduction in a Finite Domain Using Parametric Fractional Derivatives,” Journal of Heat Transfer (133), pp. 071301-1 – 071301-6.
  14. M.H. Kobayashi, H. T. C. Pedro, C.F.M. Coimbra, and A.K. da Silva (2009) “Formal Evolutionary Development of Low Entropy Dendritic Thermal Systems” - Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer (23) 4, pp. 822-827.
  15. H.T.C. Pedro, M.H. Kobayashi, C.F.M. Coimbra, and A.K. da Silva (2008) “On the Effectiveness of Complex Design through an Evolutionary Approach” – Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, (22) 1, pp. 115-118.
  16. J. L. Falter, M. J. Atkinson, and C.F.M. Coimbra (2005). “Effects of Surface Roughness and Oscillatory Flow on Dissolution of Plaster Forms: Evidence for Nutrient Mass Transfer to Coral Reef Communities” Limnology and Oceanography, 50 (1), pp. 246-254.
  17. C.F.M. Coimbra, D.K. Edwards, and R.H. Rangel (1998). “Heat Transfer in a Homogeneous Suspension Including Radiation and History Effects” - AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer (12) 3, pp. 304-312.
  18. C.F.M. Coimbra, J.S. Shirolkar and M.Q. McQuay (1998). “Modeling Particle Dispersion in a Turbulent, Multiphase Mixing Layer” - Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics (73) pp. 79-97.
  19. J.S. Shirolkar, C.F.M. Coimbra and M.Q. McQuay (1996). “Fundamental Aspects of Modeling Turbulent Particle Dispersion in Dilute Flows” - Progress in Energy and Combustion Science (22) pp. 363-399.
  20. C.F.M. Coimbra, P.J. Coelho, M.Q. McQuay and M.G. Carvalho (1996). “The Comparison of Two Comprehensive Combustion Codes to Simulate Large-Scale, Oil-Fired Boilers” - Combustion Science and Technology (120) pp. 55-81.
  21. C.F.M. Coimbra and M. Queiroz (1995). “Evaluation of a Dimensionless Group Number to Determine Second-Einstein Temperatures in a Heat Capacity Model for All Coal Ranks” - Combustion and Flame (101) 3, pp. 209-220.
  22. C.F.M. Coimbra, J.L.T. Azevedo and M.G. Carvalho (1994). “3-D Numerical Model for Predicting NOx Emissions from an Industrial Pulverized Coal Combustor” - Fuel (73) pp. 1128-1134.