# Chris Holland

Associate Research Scientist

- Research Interests
- Capsule Bio
- Publications

## Research Interests

Dr. Christopher Holland’s work focuses on understanding the fundamental dynamics of plasma turbulence in magnetically confined systems. The goal of his work is to help develop and improve predictive models of the turbulence, and transport of particles, energy, and momentum it drives, to aid in the realization of fusion energy as an economically viable commercial energy source. As part of this work, Dr. Holland and his collaborators lead validation studies of plasma turbulence using both massively parallel gyrokinetic codes and reduced gyrofluid models, focusing most recently on development of synthetic fluctuation diagnostics and incorporating them into new validation metrics. These studies are performed in close collaboration with the DIII-D experimental team at General Atomics, as well as other US and international fusion experiments, and the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment (CSDX) at UCSD. Complementing these tokamak validation studies are efforts aimed at developing new theoretical models for understanding the coupling between small-scale drift-wave turbulence and macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas.

## Capsule Bio

Christopher G. Holland received his Ph.D. in 2003 from the Department of Physics at the University of California, San Diego. From 2003-2005 he was supported by a U.S. Department of Energy Fusion Energy Sciences Research Postdoctoral Fellowship, during which time he worked with Prof. George Tynan in the JSOE MAE department on integrated analytic, computational, and experimental studies of basic plasma turbulence using the CSDX experiment. In 2005 he joined the CER as an assistant research scientist to continue this research, and extend it to tokamaks and other magnetic confinement based fusion energy experiments. He received the 2006 General Atomics Rosenbluth Award for Fusion Theory.

## Publications

**Published First Authored (15)**

- C. Holland, J.E. Kinsey, J.C. DeBoo, K.H. Burrell, T.C. Luce, S.P. Smith, C.C. Petty, A.E. White, T.L. Rhodes, L. Schmitz, E.J. Doyle, J.C. Hillesheim, G.R. McKee, Z. Yan, G. Wang, L. Zeng, B.A. Grierson, A. Marinoni, P. Mantica, P.B. Snyder, R.E. Waltz, G.M. Staebler, J. Candy, “Validation Studies of Gyrofluid and Gyrokinetic Predictions of Transport and Turbulence Stiffness Using the DIII-D Tokamak,”
*Nuclear Fusion*53 083027 (2013) - C. Holland, C. C. Petty, L. Schmitz, K. H. Burrell, G. R. McKee, T. L. Rhodes, and J. Candy, “Progress in GYRO Validation Studies of DIII-D H-mode Plasmas,”
*Nuclear Fusion***52**114007 (2012) - C. Holland, J. C. DeBoo, T. L. Rhodes, L. Schmitz, J. C. Hillesheim, G. Wang, A. E. White, M. E. Austin, E. J. Doyle, W. A. Peebles, C. C. Petty, L. Zeng, and J. Candy, “Testing gyrokinetic simulations of electron turbulence,”
*Nuclear Fusion***52**063028 (2012) - C. Holland, L. Schmitz, T. L. Rhodes, W. A. Peebles, J. C. Hillesheim, G. Wang, L. Zeng, E. J. Doyle, S. P. Smith, R. Prater, K. H. Burrell, J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, J. E. Kinsey, G. M. Staebler, J.C. DeBoo, C. C. Petty, G. R. McKee, Z. Yan, and A. E. White, “Advances in validating gyrokinetic turbulence models against L- and H-mode plasmas,”
*Physics of Plasmas***18**056113 (2011) - C. Holland, A. E. White, G. R. McKee, M. W. Shafer, J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, L. Schmitz, and G. R. Tynan, “Implementation and Application of Two Synthetic Diagnostics for Validating Simulations of Core Tokamak Turbulence,”
*Physics of Plasmas***16**052301 (2009) - C. Holland, J. Candy, R. E. Waltz A. E. White, G. R. McKee, M. W. Shafer, L. Schmitz, and G. R. Tynan, “Validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence: current status and future directions,”
*Journal of Physics: Conference Series***125**012043 (2008) - C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, R. J. Fonck, G. R. McKee, J. Candy, and R. E. Waltz, “Zonal-flow-driven nonlinear energy transfer in experiment and simulation,”
*Physics of Plasmas***14**056112 (2007) - C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, J. H. Yu, A. James, D. Nishijima, M. Shimada, and N. Taheri, “Numerical simulations of collisional drift-wave turbulence in a magnetized plasma column,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***49**A109 (2007) - C. Holland, J. H. Yu, A. James, D. Nishijima, M. Shimada, N. Taheri, and G. R. Tynan, “Observation of Turbulent Driven Zonal Flow in a Cylindrical Plasma Device,”
*Physical Review Letters***96**195002 (2006) - C. Holland, and P. H. Diamond, “On the Dynamics of Large-Scale Structures in Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence,”
*Physics Letters A***344**369 (2005) - C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, G. R. McKee, R. J. Fonck, “Investigation of the time-delay estimation method for turbulent velocity inference,”
*Review of Scientific Instruments***75**4278 (2004) - C. Holland and P. H. Diamond, “A simple model of interactions between electron temperature gradient and drift-wave turbulence,”
*Physics of Plasmas***11**1043 (2004) - C. Holland, P. H. Diamond, S. Champeaux, E. Kim, O. Gurcan, M. N. Rosenbluth, G. R. Tynan, N. Crocker, W. Nevins, and J. Candy, “Investigations of the Role of Nonlinear Couplings in Structure Formation and Transport Regulation: Experiment, Simulation, and Theory,”
*Nuclear Fusion*43 761 (2003) - C. Holland and P. H. Diamond, “Electromagnetic secondary instabilities in electron temperature gradient turbulence,”
*Physics of Plasmas*9 3857 (2002) - C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, P. H. Diamond, R. A. Moyer, and M. J. Burin, “Evidence for Reynolds-stress driven shear flows using bispectral analysis: theory and experiment,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion*44 A453 (2002)

** **

**Published Co-authored (56)**

- O Meneghini, SP Smith, LL Lao, O Izacard, Q Ren, JM Park, J Candy,"Integrated modeling applications for tokamak experiments with OMFIT" Nuclear Fusion 55 (8), 083008
- SP Smith, CC Petty, AE White, C Holland, R Bravenec, ME Austin, L Zeng, "Electron temperature critical gradient and transport stiffness in DIII-D" Nuclear Fusion 55 (8), 083011
- NT Howard, C Holland, AE White, M Greenwald, J Candy, "Fidelity of reduced and realistic electron mass ratio multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations of tokamak discharges" Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 57 (6), 065009
- AM Garofalo, KH Burrell, D Eldon, BA Grierson, JM Hanson, C Holland, "The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmasa)," Physics of Plasmas (1994-present) 22 (5), 056116
- AE White, NT Howard, AJ Creely, MA Chilenski, M Greenwald, "Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the I-mode high confinement regime and comparisons with experimenta)" Physics of Plasmas (1994-present) 22 (5), 056109
- T. Görler, A. E. White, D. Told, F. Jenko, C. Holland, and T. L. Rhodes, "A flux-matched gyrokinetic analysis of DIII-D L-mode turbulence," Phys. Plasmas
**21**122307 (2014) - N. T. Howard, A. E. White, M. Greenwald, C. Holland, J. Candy, and J. E. Rice, “Impurity transport, turbulence transitions, and intrinsic rotation in Alcator C-Mod plasmas,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***56**124004 (2014) - N. T. Howard, C. Holland, A. E. White, M. Greenwald, and J. Candy, “Synergistic cross-scale coupling of turbulence in a tokamak plasma,”
*Physics of Plasmas***21**, 112510 (2014) - J. Chowdhury, W. Wan, Y. Chen, S. E. Parker, R. J. Groebner, C. Holland, and N. T. Howard, “Study of the L-mode tokamak plasma “shortfall” with local and global nonlinear gyrokinetc df particle-in-cell simulation,” Phys. Plasmas
**21**112503 (2014) - N. T. Howard, A. E. White, M. Greenwald, C. Holland, and J. Candy, “Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulation of Alcator C-Mod tokamak discharges,”
*Physics of Plasmas***21**, 032308 (2014) - N. T. Howard, A. E. White, M. L. Reinke, M. Greenwald, C. Holland, J. Candy, and J. R. Walk, “Validation of the Gyrokinetic Model in ITG and TEM Dominated L-Mode Plasmas,”
*Nuclear Fusion***53**123011 (2013) - G. R. McKee, Z. Yan, C. Holland, R. J. Buttery, T. E. Evans, R. A. Moyer, S. Mordijck, R. Nazikian, T. L. Rhodes, O. Schmitz and M. R. Wade, "Increase of turbulence and transport with resonant magnetic perturbations in ELM-suppressed plasmas on DIII-D,"
*Nuclear Fusion*53 113011 (2013) - J. C. Hillesheim, J. C. DeBoo, W. A. Peebles, T. A. Carter, G. Wang, T. L. Rhodes, L. Schmitz, G. R. McKee, Z. Yan, G. M. Staebler, K. H. Burrell, E. J. Doyle, C. Holland, C. C. Petty, S. P. Smith, A. E. White, and L. Zeng, “Experimental characterization of multiscale and multifield turbulence as a critical gradient threshold is surpassed in the DIII-D tokamak,”
*Physics of Plasmas***20**, 056115 (2013) - N. T. Howard, A. E. White, M. Greenwald, M. L. Reinke, J. Walk, C. Holland, J. Candy, and T. Görler, “Investigation of the transport shortfall in Alcator C-Mod L-mode Plasmas,”
*Physics of Plasmas***20**, 032510 (2013) - J. C. Hillesheim, J. C. DeBoo, W. A. Peebles, T. A. Carter, G. Wang, T. L. Rhodes, L. Schmitz, G. R. McKee, K. H. Burrell,2E. J. Doyle, C. Holland, C. C. Petty, S. P. Smith, A. E. White, and L. Zeng, “Observation of a critical gradient threshold for electron temperature fluctuations in the DIII-D tokamak,”
*Physical Review Letters***110**045003 (2013) - S. C. Thakur, M. Xu, P. Manz, N. Fedorczak, C. Holland and G. R. Tynan, “Suppression of drift wave turbulence and zonal flow formation by changing axial conditions in a cylindrical magnetized plasma device,”
*Physics of Plasmas***20**012304 (2013) - M.S. Tillack, A.D. Turnbull, C.E. Kessel, N. Asakura, A.M. Garofalo, C. Holland, F. Koch, Ch. Linsmeier, S. Lisgo, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, J. Menard, F. Najmabadi, R. Nygren, T.D. Rognlien, D.D. Ryutov, R.D. Stambaugh, P.C. Stangeby and D.P. Stotler, “Summary of ARIES Town Meeting: ‘Edge Plasma Physics and Plasma Material Interactions in the Fusion Power Plant Regime,”
*Nuclear Fusion***53**027003 (2012) - D. A. D’Ippolito, D. A. Russell, and J. R. Myra, S. C. Thakur, G. R. Tynan and C. Holland, “Effect of parallel currents on drift-interchange turbulence: comparison of simulation and experiment,”
*Physics of Plasmas***19**102301 (2012) - J. C. DeBoo, C. C. Petty, A. E. White, K. H. Burrell, E. J. Doyle, J. C. Hillesheim, C. Holland, G. R. McKee, T. L. Rhodes, L. Schmitz, S. P. Smith, G. Wang, and L. Zeng, “Electron profile stiffness and critical gradient studies,”
*Physics of Plasmas***19**082518 (2012) - P. Manz, G. Xu, B. Wan, H. Q. Wang, H. Guo, I. Cziegler, N. Fedorczak, C. Holland, S. Mueller, S. C. Thakur, M. Xu, K. Miki, P. H. Diamond and G. R. Tynan, “Zonal flow triggers the L-H transition in the EAST tokamak,”
*Physics of Plasmas***19**072311 (2012) - J. C. Hillesheim, C. Holland, L. Schmitz, S. Kubota, T. L. Rhodes, and T. A. Carter, “2D full wave modeling for a synthetic Doppler backscattering diagnostics,”
*Review of Scientific Instruments***83**, 10E331 (2012) - M. Xu, G. R. Tynan, P. H. Diamond, P. Manz, C. Holland, N. Fedorczak, S. Chakraborty Thakur, J. H. Yu, K. J. Zhao, J. Q. Dong, J. Cheng, W. Y. Hong, L. W. Yan, Q. W. Yang, X. M. Song, Y. Huang, L. Z. Cai, W. L. Zhong, Z. B. Shi, X. T. Ding, X. R. Duan, Y. Liu, and HL-2A team, “Frequency-Resolved Nonlinear Turbulent Energy Transfer into Zonal Flows in Strongly heated
*L-*Mode Plasmas in the HL-2A Tokamak,”*Physical Review Letters***108**245001 (2012) - M. W. Shafer, R. J. Fonck, G. R. McKee, C. Holland, A. E. White, and D. J. Schlossberg, “2D properties of core turbulence on DIII-D and comparisons to gyrokinetic simulations,”
*Physics of Plasmas***19**032504 (2012) - L. Schmitz, C. Holland, T.L. Rhodes, G. Wang, L. Zeng, A.E. White, J.C. Hillesheim, W.A. Peebles, S.P. Smith, R. Prater, G.R. McKee, Z. Yan, W.M. Solomon, K.H. Burrell, C.T. Holcomb, E.J. Doyle, J.C. DeBoo, M.E. Austin, J.S. deGrassie and C.C. Petty, “Reduced electron thermal transport in low collisionality H-mode plasmas in DIII-D and the importance of TEM/ETG-scale turbulence,”
*Nuclear Fusion***52**023003 (2012) - R. V. Bravenec, J. Candy, M.Barnes, and C. Holland, “Linear and nonlinear verification of gyrokinetic microstability codes,”
*Physics of Plasmas***18**, 122505 (2011) - T.L. Rhodes, C. Holland, S.P. Smith, A.E. White, K.H. Burrell, J. Candy, J.C. DeBoo, E.J. Doyle, J.C. Hillesheim, J.E. Kinsey, G.R. McKee, D. Mikkelsen, W.A. Peebles, C.C. Petty, R. Prater, S. Parker, Y. Chen, L. Schmitz, G.M. Staebler, R.E. Waltz, G. Wang, Z. Yan and L. Zeng, “L-mode validation studies of gyrokinetic turbulence simulations via multiscale and multifield turbulence measurements on the DIII-D tokamak,”
*Nuclear Fusion***51**063022 (2011) - M. Xu, G. R. Tynan, P. H. Diamond, C. Holland, J. H. Yu, and Z. Yan, “Generation of a Sheared Plasma Rotation by Emission, Propagation, and Absorbtion of Drift Wave Packets,”
*Physical Review Letters***107**055003 (2011) - A. E. White, W. A. Peebles, T. L. Rhodes, C. Holland, G. Wang, L. Schmitz, T. A. Carter, J. C. Hillesheim, E. J. Doyle, L. Zeng, G. R. McKee, G. M. Staebler, R. E. Waltz, J. C. DeBoo, C. C. Petty, and K. H. Burrell, “Measurements of the cross-phase angle between density and electron temperature fluctuations and comparison with gyrokinetic simulations,”
*Physics of Plasmas***17**, 056103 (2010) - J. C. DeBoo, C. Holland, T. L. Rhodes, L. Schmitz, G. Wang, A. E. White, M. E. Austin, E. J. Doyle, J. Hillesheim, W. A. Peebles, C. C. Petty, Z. Yan, and L. Zeng, “Probing plasma turbulence by modulating the electron temperature gradient,”
*Physics of Plasmas***17**, 056105 (2010) - M. Xu, G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, Z. Yan, S. H. Muller, and J. H Yu, “Fourier-domain study of drift turbulence drive sheared flow in a laboratory plasma,”
*Physics of Plasmas***17**032311 (2010) - Z. Yan, G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, M. Xu, S. H. Müller, and J. H. Yu, “Shear flow and drift wave turbulence dynamics in a cylindrical plasma device,”
*Physics of Plasmas***17**, 032302 (2010) - Z. Yan, M. Xu, P. H. Diamond, C. Holland, S. H. Müller, G. R. Tynan, and J. H. Yu, “Intrinsic Rotation from a Residual Stress at the Boundary of a Cylindrial Laboratory Plasma,”
*Physical Review Letters***104**, 065002 (2010) - Z. Yan, G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, M. Xu, S. H. Muller, and J. H. Yu, “Scaling properties of turbulence driven shear flow,”
*Physics of Plasmas***17**, 012302 (2010) - G. R. Tynan, P. H. Diamond, C. Holland, S. H. Muller, M. Xu, Z. Yan, and J. Yu, “Nonlinear dynamics of shear flows and plasma rotation in a simple laboratory plasma,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***51**1240545 (2009) - S. H. Muller, C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, J. H. Yu, and V. Naulin, “Source formulation for electron-impact ionization for fluid plasma simulations,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***51**105014 (2009) - J. Candy, C. Holland, R. E. Waltz, M. R. Fahey, and E. Belli, “Tokamak profile prediction using direct gyrokinetic and neoclassical simulation,”
*Physics of Plasmas***16**060704 (2009) - M. Xu, G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, Z. Yan, S. H. Muller, J. H. Yu, “Study of Nonlinear Spectral Energy Transfer in Frequency Domain,”
*Physics of Plasmas***16**042312 (2009) - D. A. Baver, P. W. Terry, and C. Holland, “Basis operator bispectral analysis,”
*Physics of Plasmas***16**032309 (2009) - R. E. Waltz and C. Holland, “Numerical experiments on the drift wave – zonal flow paradigm for nonlinear saturation,”
*Physics of Plasmas***15**122503 (2008) - A. E. White, L. Schmitz, W. A. Peebles, T. A. Carter, T. L. Rhodes, E. J. Doyle, P. A. Gourdain, J. C. Hillesheim, G. Wang, C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, M. E. Austin, G. R. McKee, M. W. Shafer, K. H. Burrell, J. Candy, J. C. DeBoo, R. Prater, G. M. Staebler, R. E. Waltz, and M. A. Makowski, “A correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and the importance of multi-field fluctuation measurements for testing nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations,”
*Review of Scientific Instruments*,**79**103505 (2008) - Z. Yan, J. H. Yu, C. Holland, M. Xu, S. H. Mueller, G. R. Tynan, “Statistical analysis of the turbulent Reynolds stress and its link to the shear flow generation in a cylindrical laboratory plasma device,”
*Physics of Plasmas***15**092309 (2008) - A. E. White, L. Schmitz, G. R. McKee, C. Holland, W. A. Peebles, T. A. Carter, M. W. Shafer, M. E. Austin, K. H. Burrell, J. Candy, J. C. DeBoo, E. J. Doyle, M. A. Makowski, R. Prater, T. L. Rhodes, G. M. Staebler, G. R. Tynan, R. E. Waltz, and G. Wang, “Measurements of core electron temperature and density fluctuations in DIII-D and comparison to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations,”
*Physics of Plasmas***15**056116 (2008) - A. Fujisawa, T. Ido, A. Shimizu, S. Okamura, K. Matsuoka, H. Iguchi, Y. Hamada, H. Nakano, S. Ohshima, K. Itoh, K. Hoshino, K. Shinohara, Y. Miura, Y. Nagashima, S.-I. Itoh, M. Shats, H. Xia, J. Q. Dong, L. W. Yan, K. J. Zhao, G. D. Conway, U. Stroth, A. V. Melnikov, L. G. Eliseev, S. E. Lysenko, S.V. Perfilov, C. Hidalgo, G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, P. H. Diamond, G. R. McKee, R. J. Fonck, D.K. Gupta and P. M. Schoch
*.*, “Experimental progress on zonal flow physics in toroidal plasmas,”*Nuclear Fusion***47**S718 (2007) - J. H. Yu, C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, G. Antar, and Z. Yan, “Examination of the velocity time-delay-estimation technique,”
*Journal of Nuclear Materials***363**728 (2007) - J. Candy R. E. Waltz, M. R. Fahey, and C. Holland, “The effect of ion-scale dynamics on electron-temperature-gradient turbulence,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***49**1209 (2007) - J. Candy R. E. Waltz, M. R. Fahey, and C. Holland, “Plasma microturbulence simulation of instabilities at highly disparate scales,”
*Journal of Physics: Conference Series***78**012008 (2007) - G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, J. H. Yu, A. James, D. Nishijima, M. Shimada, and N. Taheri, “Observation of Turbulent Driven Zonal Flow in a Cylindrical Plasma Device,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***48**S51 (2006) - M. J. Burin, G. R. Tynan, G. Y. Antar, N. A. Crocker, and C. Holland, “On the Transition to Drift-Turbulence in a Magnetized Plasma Column,”
*Physics of Plasmas***12**052320 (2005) - G. R. Tynan, M. J. Burin, C. Holland, G. Antar, N. Crocker, and P. H. Diamond, “Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical plasma,”
*Physics of Plasmas***11**5195 (2004) - G. R. McKee, R. J. Fonck, D. K. Gupta, D. J. Schlossberg, M. W. Shafer, C. Holland, G. R. Tynan, “Turbulence velocimetry of density fluctuation imaging data,”
*Review of Scientific Instruments***75**3490 (2004) - G. R. Tynan, M. J. Burin, C. Holland, G. Antar, P. H. Diamond, “Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical helicon plasma device,”
*Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion***46**A373 (2004) - E. Kim, P. H. Diamond, M. Malkov, T. S. Hahm, K. Itoh, S.-I. Itoh, S. Champeaux, I. Gruzinov, O. Gurcan, C. Holland, M. N. Rosenbluth, and A. Smolyakov, “Non-perturbative models of intermittency in drift-wave turbulence: towards a probabilistic theory of anomalous transport,”
*Nuclear Fusion*43 961 (2003) - E. Kim, C. Holland, and P. H. Diamond, “Collisional Damping of Electron Temperature Gradient Mode Driven Zonal Flows,”
*Physical Review Letters*91 075003 (2003) - R.A. Moyer, G. R. Tynan, C. Holland, M. J. Burin, “Increased nonlinear coupling between turbulence and low-frequency fluctuations at the L-H transition,”
*Physical Review Letters*87 135001 (2001) - P. H. Diamond, S. Champeaux, M. Malkov, A. Das, I. Gruzinov, M. N. Rosenbluth, C. Holland, and B. Wecht, “Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for zonal flow and avalanche formation,”
*Nuclear Fusion*41 1067 (2001) - G. R. Tynan, R. A. Moyer, M. J. Burin, and C. Holland, “On the nonlinear turbulent dynamics of shear-flow decorrelation and zonal flow generation,”
*Physics of Plasmas*8 2691 (2001)